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# Varanus: _Resilient Communication in the WAN of a Smart Grid Distribution System Operator_
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Varanus operates on the WAN of a Smart Grid Distribution System Operator (DSO) by providing communication among the DSO substations and the control center that is tolerant to multiple classes of attacks and disruptions in the WAN. It relies on a Software-Defined Network (SDN) that spans over multiple substations and the control center (each containing one or more SDN switches which are administered remotely by an SDN controller typically located on the control center).

Data transmission from one substation to another (or from/to the control center) is routed through an SDN switch situated on the network edge of the source location which forwards communication via the WAN towards another SDN switch situated in the network edge of the target location (which then forwards it internally to its final destination). Transmission from the source to the target switch may be routed directly through the WAN, or it may be routed through intermediary SDN switches depending on the network proximity between the locations but also on the perceived Quality of Service (QoS) of each direct link (through the WAN only) between two adjacent switches in the SDN topology.

The SDN controller, which is responsible for reconfiguring transmission routes among the switches, dynamically adjusts these routes over time according to the most up-to-date QoS information it has about the inter-switch links. The controller obtains this QoS information by coordinating a passive and secure traffic monitoring mechanism with the help of auxiliary traffic collectors located near the SDN switches. The chosen route between two switches is at any given time the one that maximizes the total QoS of a network path connecting the switches.

We provide implementations of the SDN controller and the auxiliary traffic collector, as described above. Furthermore, we also provide two extra applications in order to help putting the system into practice: 1) one to simplify the task of building and configuring a virtual network of multiple SDN switches, and 2) another to graphically display the configured network and live information from the controller (traffic routes and QoS statistics), to allow real-time reconfiguration of network link properties (e.g., packet delay and packet loss) and also to emulate some possible attack scenarios on the network.

Please read the document [doc/Description\_and\_Tutorial.pdf](doc/Description_and_Tutorial.pdf) for a more detailed description of the applications and instructions on how to use them.
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You can also view a movie demonstrating the applications in the file [demo/varanus-demo.mp4](demo/varanus-demo.mp4).

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## Contributors
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* Ricardo Fonseca
* Eric Vial
* Nuno Neves
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* Fernando Ramos